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    Protection Measures for Invasive Pests and Endangered Species

    The Plant Protection Bulletin

    Plant protection bulletin is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research papers, rapid communications and reviews covering all aspects of modern plant protection. The journal focuses on issues that are of specific concern to National Plant Protection Organizations.

    APHIS works to protect agriculture, natural resources and the environment by preventing the entry into the United States of invasive pests and diseases. This is achieved through effective regulation and policy.

    Pest Reports

    Identifying pests is an important step in protecting plants and promoting trade. The information gathered by pest reports is used to determine the level of risk that exists for different commodities and areas. The CFIA tracks pests through a variety of methods, including scouting, using online reporting tools such as iNaturalist and EDDMaps, and collecting samples from suspicious plants or crops.

    Invasive plant pests are a serious threat to global agriculture, natural ecosystems and public health. They can wreak ecological havoc and require expensive eradication or management programs.

    To protect against them, PPQ has deployed an advanced quantitative tool called the Pest or Pathogen Spread (PoPS) forecast. This tool simulates the probability of an invasive pest or pathogen making its way from one place to another, giving regulators and growers an opportunity to take preventative measures. In addition, PPQ is testing a number of early warning systems that can predict the likelihood of an outbreak based on environmental factors.

    Pesticide Use Limitations

    A pesticide is considered a potential threat to federally listed endangered or threatened plants and animals when it is used in an area that has been designated as critical habitat for those species. The directions for use on the pesticide label will typically specify requirements to obtain a Bulletin in these cases. However, following the Bulletin does not excuse the pesticide applicator from legal responsibility if a species is killed or otherwise harmed by the application of a prohibited substance.

    A large body of European legislation regulates the marketing and use of plant protection products. In the EU, EFSA performs risk assessments of active substances and sets limits for residues in foods (maximum residue levels or MRLs) while Member States evaluate and authorise plant protection products at national level. In addition to MRLs, EFSA also evaluates consumer risks, including possible endocrine disruption. The process of modifying MRLs is complex, and involves the submission of an application by a Member State (EMS) to EFSA in order for EFSA to prepare a scientific opinion (reasonable opinion). EFSA’s consumer risk assessment is based on information from a wide range of sources, including published literature and government legislation.

    EPA Endangered Species Protection Bulletins

    When endangered species of plants or animals are at risk of becoming extinct, the Endangered Species Act requires that protective measures be put in place. Threats to the species could be caused by anything from habitat destruction, pollution, over-harvesting and vandalism.

    Once a risk assessment and/or formal consultations with the Services are completed, EPA will either change pesticide product labels or establish geographically specific “endangered species protection bulletins” for each individual pesticide active ingredient that may affect a listed species in its jurisdiction. This EPA program is a voluntary interim program until such time as the use limitations are enforceable on the pesticide product’s label.

    Pesticide products that require a bulletin check will contain a statement on the label directing the pesticide user to a EPA website called Bulletins Live! Two. The site allows the pesticide user to enter the geographic area and month for which the pesticide application will take place and then checks the database for any enforceable use limitations for that specific location at that particular time of year.

    EPA Registration Numbers

    EPA requires all companies that produce pesticides or pest control devices to register those products with the agency. Those who register pesticides are called “registrants.” A company must have a “company number” to become a registrant. Once a company has a company number, it can apply for an EPA establishment number. This number must appear on all product labels, including supplemental ones for distributors and special local need registrations.

    The EPA establishment number is a four-digit number that corresponds to the final pesticide production facility. State abbreviations typically appear after the establishment number, for example MO, which indicates that a product was produced in Missouri.

    EPA’s Endangered Species Protection Bulletins establish geographically specific pesticide use limitations to protect waterways, endangered fish and aquatic organisms, plants, insect and other animals, their critical habitats, and the ecosystems on which they depend. EPA issues the Bulletins as part of its regular registration review process. EPA’s registration review process is required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and its amendment, PRIA.

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